Job analysis may be defined as a methodical process of collecting information on the functionally relevant aspects of a job. Job analysis tells the human resources personnel:
- the time it takes to complete relevant tasks
- the tasks that are grouped together under a single job position
- the ways to design or structure a job for maximizing employee performance
- the employee behavioral pattern associated with performance of the job
- the traits and attributes of a proper candidate for the job
- the ways the data can be used to develop human resource management
Three major factors create the need for job analysis:
- statutory concerns, such as equal employment opportunity
- responses to business competition—recruiting and retaining talent
- technological changes that create new jobs and render others obsolete
Job analysis information is used in human resources on a regular basis to define:
- Job description: A job description gives an account of the work and duties associated with a particular job. It describes the way the job is performed currently. Most job descriptions contain the following information:
- the job name
- summary description of the job
- a list of duties for the job
- a list of organizational responsibilities related to the job
- Job specifications: Job specifications define the characteristics of the activities associated with the job and given in the job description. They describe the skill sets and qualifications that a candidate for the job should possess.
- Job classification: Job classification groups similar jobs into classes and families. This simplifies the overview for managers and is essential for streamlined functioning of an organization.
- Job evaluation: Job evaluation involves finding out the monetary worth of a job and helps to set up equitable pay structures.
- Job design: Job design integrates employee needs with productivity needs to maximize worker efficiency.
- Identifying training needs of personnel
- Creating recruitment strategies
- Making performance reviews