Small businesses may employ several human-resources generalists who perform all aspects of HR work. Yet, it often happens that there are several types of Human Resource Managers to supervise various personnel matters, especially in corporations consisting of many departments. There may even be a director of human resources, who supervises other HR Managers, and consults with upper management on new company policies, and projects.
HR Manager is almost similar to a sales manager. This manager oversees the sales force of a company and reports employee issues to other HR Managers. This manager also designs training procedures for employees, provides employee work-quality assurance, acts as a resource for regulatory procedures, acts as a sales-department liaison, and tracks daily sales income. As with many other HR Managers, they provide conflict resolution and employee disciplinary action as needed.
Another type of HR Manager is a Financial Manager. This manager works within the HR department as the head accountant. He or she mainly audits employee payroll and develops employee-benefits packages, such as insurance and retirement benefits. These managers also mete out bonuses, promotions, and demotions to employees after consulting with other company managers.
A Project Manager is another common HR Manager who heads special employee-run projects for a company. Project Managers first outline the requirements for a certain project, such as an IT-related website design project. They then set deadlines for phases of that project and apply their energy to finishing the project before those deadlines. As the Project Manager undertakes the project, he or she works with other managers and leads employees. The Project Manager motivates employees to perform better and troubleshoot any problems they may encounter, including equipment-related problems and employee-relations problems. This manager also holds regular meetings to obtain status updates on the project, and creates flow charts to document the project's progress. Moreover, this manager audits the project's costs and tries to keep them within the budget.
Project Managers typically work in the fields of architecture, telecommunications, software programming, and construction. In architecture and construction, they outline the process of a building project, from creating its models to the final inspection of the finished product. They also draw up and reinforce a timeline related to that project, and may work overtime to meet deadlines. In telecommunications and software programming, they initiate computer-related projects such as company websites and Intranet systems. Again, they outline the schedule of a project and modify, should the project's development experience delays.
Larger corporations often have recruiting managers to supervise hiring activities, or payroll managers to oversee payroll. They may also have benefits specialists or compensation managers who develop innovative pension and insurance benefits to attract and retain employees. A number of corporations may even employ employee-welfare managers to administer employee commuting, child care, counseling services, and exercise programs.
Notwithstanding their specialization, all Human-Resource Managers proceed through extended training that typically culminates in certification. First, they gain their bachelor's degree, typically in human resources or labor relations. While in college, they take courses relating to business, administration, accounting, and psychology. Since some HR Jobs require technical knowledge, they may also take computer-science and software development programs. Additionally, they take courses about employee regulations and policies. They cap off their studies with internships and other work-study experience to ready themselves for entry-level HR Jobs.
After college, some ambitious HR Managers may decide to pursue their master's degree. Students who want to work in industrial labor relations may opt to attend graduate school, especially law school, as they are required to memorize contract-negotiation procedures. Those who want to become employee-benefits specialists often attend law school to master the many policies relating to benefits administration. Nonetheless, an increasing number of aspiring HR Managers are pursuing master's degree to make them competitive in the job market.
The acme of human-resources education is human-resources certification. Students can obtain certification through many Professional HR Associations. One popular type of certification is the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) Program. There are also certification programs relating to benefits administration and employee training. Obtaining certification helps HR Specialists make the final leap into lucrative HR Management Jobs.
HR Managers' compensation hinges on their specialization. For instance, benefits specialists make about $74,000 per year, while training managers make about $80,000. General HR Managers make about $88,500 per year. In addition, about 10% of each type of HR Manager earns over $100,000 yearly.
HR Manager Jobs are expected to grow by 17% between 2006 and 2016. New developments in employee regulations, OSHA regulations, benefits packages, and non-discriminatory employment legislation have made room for many more HR Managers. In times of recession, HR Managers may be replaced by computer systems, such as payroll-auditing systems. Most likely, this challenge will be offset by the great number of baby-boomer HR Managers poised to retire in the next decade.